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Kettle Falls Voyageurs National Park

Kettle Falls Voyageurs National Park

Visitors may do this between the hours of a. Swimming in the river is dangerous because of strong currents. No discounts can be applied once the tour has started.

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Geology[ edit ] Rocks or sediment from three short intervals of geologic time, each from three different geological eras, Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Cenozoic, are exposed at the surface within Interstate Park. The oldest strata are of the Keweenawan Supergroup, which is a 2. During the formation of the Midcontinent Rift System, these strata accumulated about 1.

At least ten separate lava flows are exposed within the region of Interstate Park. Since their accumulation, these strata within Interstate Park area have undergone very low to low-grade metamorphism. This epoch of the Cambrian, the Furongianwas originally called the Croixian in North America because the layers exposed in this area were its type locality.

Both the landforms and deposits related to these earlier glaciations have been either eroded or buried by the latest advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet over this area of the Last Glacial Maximum.

During this time, the Superior Lobe had retreated from the St. Croix Moraine northeastward to the Thompson Moraine. Between 14, and 11, BP calibrated 12, and 10, 14C uncalibratedan extensive set of ice marginal channels drained meltwater from the Thompson Moraine by way of the Brule channel into the newly formed St.

Croix River. Lake Duluthsince the Last Glacial Maximum. First, the retreat of the Superior lobe into the Lake Superior basin created proglacial lakes. Initially, these lakes consisted of small, proglacial lakes.

Later, these lakes coalesced to form a large proglacial lake called glacial Lake Duluth, which was confined to the western Superior basin. There also was an older epi-Duluth level that lay above the Duluth level. As the Lake Superior Lobe retreated, the Brule outlet opened and the higher Moose Lake was abandoned as a lower Duluth level was quickly established by massive and sudden outflow through the lower Brule outlet and down St.

The Brule outlet was abandoned when Lake Superior Lobe retreated from the Keweenaw Peninsula and opened lower eastward draining outlets. This caused the Duluth level to drop abruptly to post-Duluth levels and water to cease flowing into lower Brule outlet and down the St. Croix River and the formation of the deep gorge of the St. Croix River of the St. Croix River valley and its famous potholes occurred.

In and surrounding Polk County, Minnesota, geomorphic and stratigraphic relationships evidence exists for at least two drainage events. The Kettle Falls Voyageurs National Park surface is a scoured Glacier National Park To Great Falls Mt marked by distinct lemniscate landforms; bar-shaped lndforms composed of sand; and a lag layer of cobbles and boulders. This lag layer overlies an unconformity eroded into older glacial till, lake sediment, or bedrock.

This surface extends from the lower reaches of the Kettle River valley as far south as Sunrise, Minnesota. Croix River valley was excavated by a second drainage event.

This inner channel is incised as a narrower valley cut into, and hence younger than, the Chengwatana surface. This demonstrates that the St. Croix valley is slightly younger than the Kettle River valley and Moose Lake outlet and was cut by water Kettle Falls Voyageurs National Park out of the lower and younger Brule outlet of the Duluth level of glacial Lake Duluth.

Because the trace of the Chengwatana surface grades to a terrace level higher than the potholes in International State Park, they were eroded by spillway water from Duluth level of glacial Lake Duluth. Croix valley and the potholes indicates that they were created between 10, and 10, BP calibrated.

Within the eddies, the sand and gravel were swirled around with such force that they drilled holes straight down into the rock….

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Initially, these lakes consisted of small, proglacial lakes. Paul proposed mining the basalt of the Dalles to make gravel, a plan which galvanized interest in protecting the area. If the pass holder does not bring their pass and identification the discount will not apply and the pass holder will be required to pay in full upon check-in. Croix River valley and its famous potholes occurred.